The Crimson-bellied Woodpecker is a relatively rare member of the genus Campephilus that appears to be restricted to two different regions. The nominate subspecies is found in a narrow elevational band in the foothills of the eastern Andes from northern Colombia to southern Peru. A second subspecies, sometimes considered a distinct species (Splendid Woodpecker), occurs from eastern Panama through the western lowlands and foothills of Colombia to northwestern Ecuador. Both subspecies are restricted to relatively intact forest. Similar in shape and size to other members of the genus Campephilus, the bird gets its name from the rich dark crimson underparts. Otherwise the plumage is mostly black, lacking the white stripes on the back that many of the other members of this genus show. It has a black mask bordered above and below by “buff” malar and facial stripes. The throat is black. Males often show a “shagginess” to the elongated red crest feathers. Females have a continuation of the buff malar down the neck. The bill on this species is dark. Most similar in plumage to the Red-necked Woodpecker (Campehilus rubricollis) of the Amazonia lowlands, but Red-necked lacks the black throat and striped facial pattern. Vocalizations rather similar to Crimson-crested Woodpecker (Campephilus melanoleucus), with which it overlaps in range, but is generally “weaker.” Gives the distinctive “double-rap” drum characteristic of most members of the genus.