The Cloud-forest Pygmy-Owl is so poorly known that it was not even recognized as distinct from other pygmy-owls until it was described as a new species in 1999. This species is restricted to middle elevations on the west slope of the Andes of Colombia and Ecuador; it occupies a band that is above the elevations at which the Central American Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium griseiceps) occurs, and is below the elevational range of the Andean Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium jardinii). The song of the Cloud-forest Pygmy-Owl is a long series of paired, short whistles, a song pattern that is shared with the Northern Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium gnoma) and the Costa Rican Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium costaricanum). In common with other species of pygmy-owls, this species is partially diurnal, and consumes both invertebrates and small vertebrates. Otherwise very little is known about the biology of this owl. In view of its small geographic range and ongoing deforestation in this region, the IUCN Red List conservation status of the Cloud-forest Pygmy-Owl is assessed as Vulnerable.