The Cinnamon-throated Hermit is similar to many other of the smaller hermits in having principally tawny-colored underparts, a dark face mask, green wings and browner upperparts, with a white-tipped tail. Two populations are known; one in northeast Brazil and the other in easternmost Bolivia and adjacent southwestern Brazil, but it seems probable that the species is more or less continuously distributed in well-vegetated pre-Amazonian habitats across the central plateau of Brazil. Confusion, which still reigns to some extent in discussions concerning the taxonomy of these small hermits, led to the northeastern birds being described recently as a new species, Phaethornis ‘maranhaoensis’, but subsequent research has demonstrated this name to be erroneously based on the male of Phaethornis nattereri. Very little is known about the species’ biology, although what we do know, for instance concerning its trap-lining foraging habits, are commensurate with the behaviour of closely related taxa. The Cinnamon-throated Hermit is unquestionably of rather local occurrence, but it is probably not rare.