The Chaco Nothura is a rather poorly known bird endemic to a small area of south-central South America, where it occurs in the arid Paraguayan Chaco, with relatively small extensions of its range into northern Argentina, and probably into Bolivia. It is found arid and semi-arid grassland areas with bushy thickets, as well as in open woodland. The species may have declined in some parts of its range as a result of agricultural intensification. At least some authorities have preferred to include the Chaco Nothura as a subspecies of the much more widespread Spotted Nothura (Nothura maculosa), although the present species is sympatric with the latter in parts of Paraguay at least. However, their plumages are undoubtedly similar, and to date the voice of the Chaco Nothura appears to be undescribed.