The Brown-banded Puffbird is one of the largest of the puffbirds and closely related to the more widespread White-necked Puffbird (Notharcus macrorhynchos). The distribution of this rare species is continuous in the "Guianan Shield" region of northeastern South America, but it also occurs locally as far west as eastern Peru and northern Bolivia, where it is found in white sand forests and on well-drained upland terraces. It’s plumage is rather similar to the White-necked Puffbird, but it is smaller, lacks a white eyebrow, and has a brown band across the breast. Little is known about the natural history of the Brown-banded Puffbird, but its behavior is probably similar to other members of the genus. The only reported nest was high above the ground in a termite nest, consistent with the cavity-nesting behavior of other species of puffbirds.