Black-throated Trogon are resident, and occupy three disjunct regions. They occur in Middle America from Honduras south to Panama and in northwestern South America, west of the Andes in Colombia and Ecuador, and north of the Andes in northern Colombia. It also occurs across much of Amazonia, from Colombia south to Bolivia and east to Venezuela, the Guianas, and much of Brazil. The Black-throated Trogon also occurs in southeastern South America, in eastern and southern Brazil, in Paraguay, and in northeastern Argentina.
The elevational range of the Black-throated Trogon in Costa Rica is below 1000 m (Stiles and Skutch 1989). In Colombia it occurs up to 1100 m (Hilty and Brown 1986); in Venezuela, up to 900 m (Hilty 2003); in Ecuador, up to 700-750 m (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001); and in Peru, only up to 650 m (Schulenberg et al. 2007).