The Blue Ground-dove occupies a large portion of the Neotropics. The species occurs from southeastern Mexico south, on the Atlantic slope, to eastern Panama; and, on the Pacific slope, from extreme southern Mexico south to eastern Panama. It occurs along the Pacific slope of northwestern South America from Colombia south to northwestern Peru. The distribution extends east across northern Colombia to the Guianas, and south, east of the Andes, to eastern Brazil and to northwestern and northeastern Argentina.
The Blue Ground-Dove is resident in most of its range, but engages in seasonal movements in some regions. It is absent from some sites in Yucatan, Mexico, from March-May, but is common in this region June-August (Howell and Webb 1995). Similarly, present in El Salvador only during January-June (Dickey and van Rossem 1938, Thurber et al. 1987).