The Black-faced Solitaire is restricted to the mountains of Costa Rica and western Panama (Bird and Butchart 2009). The breeding elevational distribution is from 950-2750 m in Costa Rica (Stiles and Skutch 1989), and 750 m and higher in Panama (Ridgely and Gwynne 1989). In Panama, most numerous in western Chiriquí (Ridgely and Gwynne 1989. Population size has not yet been quantified in these regions.
Many individuals move downslope following breeding. In Costa Rica, Black-faced Solitaires regularly descend to 450 m, and occasionally to as low as 100 m, at least on the Caribbean slope (Stiles and Skutch 1989).