Black-bellied Seedeater is endemic to southern Brazil; it regularly breeds in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina and occasionally in Paraná states. After breeding it disperses north as far as Minas Gerais and southern Goiás, in central Brazil. This seedeater reproduces in moist grasslands and grassy margins of marshes and in the uplands of south Brazil. Males are distinctive having a mostly gray plumage, with a small white speculum (white patch at the base of the primaries), black throat, breast and belly. This color pattern is similar to that of Chestnut-bellied Seedeater (Sporophila castaneiventris) of Amazonia, the main difference being the chestnut color of the throat and center of the underparts. The female is much less distinctive, being predominantly olive brown, similar to many other species of Sporophila. The conservation status of the Black-bellied Seedeater is Near Threatened, and habitat loss within its relatively small geographic range coupled with captures for cage bird trade are the principal threats.