Black-bellied Seedeater globally is considered Near-threatened (NT) (BirdLife International 2014). In Brazil it is considered Vulnerable (VU). It is a target species in the Brazilian Action Plan to Consenvation of birds from Campos Sulinos and Espinilho (PAN). State conservation status varies along the distribution of the species varying from Vulnerable, VU (RS, SC, PR, MG) to Critically Endangered, CR (SP). At the breeding sites is poorly found in Conservation Units such as Parque Nacional da Serra Geral (RS), Parque Estadual do Tainhas (RS), Parque Nacional de Aparados da Serra (RS/SC) and Parque Nacional de São Joaquim (SC).
Effects of human activity on populations
Habitat destruction and degradation are the main causes of population reduction regionally. Conversion of large areas of grasslands and its associated wetlands into soybean, wheat and corn fields, apple orchards and tree plantations (pines and eucalyptus) are pointed out as the main causes of habitat loss. Indirectly, use of pesticides in the crops may also affect the species, since remaining habitats are contiguous to crop fields and therefore subject to direct contamination. Drainage and construction of dams in the wetlands is growing and might increase loss of breeding areas. The practice of uncontrolled annual burning also leads to a decrease of plant species used as food, and may affect the phenology of many grasses. Capture for illegal trade and to be kept as pet may reduce population and cause negative effects in reproductive fitness since the biggest and strongest males are targeted (Rovedder et al 2013)