The strikingly plumaged Black-bellied Gnateater is the largest member of the genus Conopophaga. The large white postocular tufts of the male can be flared at 90º to the head and are starkly contrasted against the velvety black head and underparts. Black-bellied Gnateater most likely is endemic to lower Amazonian Brazil; although there is an old specimen from northern Bolivia, there are some doubts as to whether the collection locality is valid. Generally, the species is considered to be fairly common in most of its range, but without knowledge of its voice, Black-bellied Gnateater is easily overlooked. Like most of its congeners, its difficulty to detect is compounded by its shy and retiring nature and affinity for areas of dense undergrowth of terra firme forest. The breeding biology of Black-bellied Gnateater remains completely undescribed.