The Black-headed Tody-Flycatcher is one of just two species of Todirostrum that is found in Central America; the other being the Common Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum cinereum), which ranges even further north. The present species occurs from eastern Costa Rica south to South America, where it reaches south to western Ecuador and east as far as westernmost Venezuela. It prefers the canopy and edge of humid forest and tall second growth, and occurs to approximately 1500 m. The Black-headed Tody-Flycatcher rarely follows mixed-species flocks, preferring to forage in pairs or alone, and taking a variety of insectivorous prey. It is considered uncommon to fairly common, but its preference for the canopy makes the species easily overlooked, even by ornithologists familiar with its lively ‘chipping’ calls. The nest is typical of the genus, although information on breeding biology is still relatively scant.