Few birds have so inexplicably slipped from the ornithological ‘radar’ as the Blue-eyed Ground-Dove, although it is doubtless the case that a lack of apprecation of its identification features and the low degree of interest amongst most birdwatchers in Columbina ground-doves have played an important role in the lack of modern sightings of this Critically Endangered species. Endemic to the southwest Brazilian cerrado, this ground-dove is best known from the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Goiás, with an old record from São Paulo, and it could conceivably occur in westernmost Minas Gerais. Massive and more or less uncontrolled habitat modification within this region has unquestionably contributed to its apparent great rarity, although it seems to have been uncommon even historically; the last, published record dates from no more recently than 1992, although some sources claim that the Blue-eyed Ground-Dove persists in small numbers in the Serra dos Araras, in southern Mato Grosso. The Blue-eyed Ground-Dove’s natural history is almost completely unknown, but it clearly should be searched for amongst the abundant Ruddy Ground-Doves (Columbina talpacoti) and Plain-breasted Ground-Doves (Columbina minuta). In particular, Ruddy Ground-Dove lacks the rufous head of the present species, as well as the whitish throat and vent that characterize the Blue-eyed Ground-Dove. Its habits are doubtless similar to both these other species.