The Blue-and-white Swallow is native to Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela. It is a vagrant to Mexico and Nicaragua (BirdLife International 2009).
The northern subspecies cyanoleuca occurs in the foothills and highlands of Costa Rica, western Panama, upper tropical and lower temperate zones of Colombia, the subtropical zone of Venezuela, Trinidad, Guyana, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, southern and eastern Brazil, and northwestern Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay (Turner and Rose 1989). In Costa Rica, the Blue-and-white Swallow can be found at elevations of 500-3,100 meters (Garrigues and Dean 2007). The subspecies peruviana occurs on the coast of Peru to 2,500 m (Turner and Rose 1989). The southern patagonica is widespread to 4000 m and can be found to the lowlands east of Argentina (Turner and Rose 1989).
While the northern populations are resident, patagonica migrates to winter in northern Chile, northern Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, eastern Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, the Guianas, and Panama (Turner and Rose 1989), with records of vagrants as far north as Nicaragua and southern Mexico. They arrive for wintering in Argentina and Uruguay in August-September and depart in January-March (Turner and Rose 1989).