Currently classified as Vulnerable by BirdLife International, this species, the southernmost in distribution of the four bellbirds, is much sought-after for the commercial cagebird trade. Bare-throated Bellbird is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of eastern Brazil south to northeastern Argentina and eastern Paraguay. While the nearly all-white male sings from high perches above the canopy and is unmistakable, females are drab olive and yellow birds, heavily streaked below, with a blackish crown and throat. There is some geographical overlap with Bearded Bellbird (Procnias averano) in northeastern Brazil. Unlike the female Bearded Bellbird, however, the female Bare-throated Bellbird has a much more solidly dark crown and, especially, throat. These two species generally replace each other altitudinally in northeast Brazil, with Bearded Bellbird probably largely confined to remnant lowland forests.