The Bamboo Antshrike is a relatively recently described antshrike in the genus Cymbilaimus that is very similar to the more widespread, and sympatric Fasciated Antshrike (Cymbilaimus lineatus). It is found in the Amazonian lowlands and lower foothills of the eastern Andes of southeastern Peru, northern Bolivia, and western Brazil. The discovery of this species epitomizes the importance of both habitat specialization and distinct vocalizations in the determination of species ranking. Long thought of as a “subspecies” of Fasciated Antshrike, the Bamboo Antshrike was found to be restricted to Guadua bamboo, whereas Fasciated, although nearly completely overlapping in range, is mainly found in the canopy and sub-canopy of terra firme forest. Furthermore, the vocalizations of the two are very different. The main song of Bamboo Antshrike can be described as a series of 4-10 sharp notes, “yeek-yeek-yeek-yeek,” quite different from the series of hollow, mournful notes of Fasciated. The plumage is very similar to Faciated, but males have a longer crest, a smaller bill, and it lacks the red iris that is quite noticeable in Facsiated. The female Bamboo Antshrike is also quite similar to the female Fasciated, but is less heavily barred black underneath, and has a black rear portion to the crest feathers. Like Fasciated Antshrike, it is usually found in isolated pairs, and only occasionally joins mixed-species flocks.