Described as Hirundo cyaneoviridis by Bryant in 1859, but later placed by most authorities in the monotypic genus Callichelidon Baird 1865 (e.g. Hellmayr 1935, Peters 1960).
Recent molecular work clarifies the relationships of Tachycineta, based on DNA sequence data from six mitochondrial genes: cytochrome b, the second subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase II, ATPase 8, tRNA-lysine, and tRNA-methionine (Whittingham et al. 2002). The resulting phylogeny recovers two main clades within Tachycineta. The South and Central American clade is made up of five species: Tumbes Swallow (T. stolzmanni), Mangrove Swallow (T. albilinea), White-winged Swallow (T. albiventer), White-rumped Swallow (T. leucorrhoa), and Chilean Swallow (T. meyeni). The North American and Caribbean clade consists of Tree Swallow (T. bicolor), Violet-green Swallow (T. thalassina), Golden Swallow (T. euchrysea), and cyaneoviridis. Tachycineta bicolor is basal in the North American clade; cyaneoviridis is sister to the pair euchrysea + thalassina.