Also known as the Plain-tailed Nighthawk, on account of the absence of any tail-band, which feature most clearly separates this recently described Brazilian endemic from the wholly allopatric Band-tailed Nighthawk (Nyctiprogne leucopyga), this species is, despite its name, not confined to the state of Bahia. Other vernacular names afforded this species have included the also somewhat inappropriate Caatinga Nighthawk. Its behavior undoubtedly is very similar to that of Band-tailed Nighthawk, and this species is equally closely tied to riverine habitats. The nest, which is just a depression on the ground, is unlined. In contrast to Band-tailed Nighthawk’s very broad range, Bahian Nighthawk appears to be confined to the middle reaches of the valley of the Rio São Francisco and some tributaries, in the states of Minas Gerais and Bahia. This species was originally described in the genus Chordeiles; phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data confirms earlier suspicions that Bahian Nighthawk belongs in Nyctiprogne. The scientific epithet vielliardi honors the late Jacques Vielliard.