The Black-and-gold Tanager as rare relative to other Neotropical birds (Parker et al. 1996). Other authors have characterized it as uncommon (e.g., Cuervo et al. 2008b), fairly common, to very locally common (e.g., Stiles 1998, Ridgely and Tudor 2009, Hilty 2011). Overall the species is thought to be on a slow and steady decline, with no sub-population estimated to contain more than 50 mature individuals (Renjifo et al 2014, BirdLife International 2018). It is estimated that there are about 600-1700 mature individuals and an estimated total of about 1000-2500 individuals of the Black-and-gold Tanager (Hilty 2011, BirdLife International 2018), with this population gradually decreasing. The generation time is estimated at 3.7 years (Renjifo et al. 2014). The distribution size is about 3500-4000 km2 (Hilty 2011, Renjifo et al. 2014). When refined by elevation and suitable habitat, independent estimations of the range have been 2445 km2 and 3226 km2 (Renjifo et al 2014, and Ocampo-Peñuela 2016, respectively). The Semicollared Hawk (Accipiter collaris) is a likely predator (Stiles 1998). There is no information available on age at first breeding, survivorship, parasitism, or other population regulations.