The Black-and-gold Tanager is one of two very rare tanagers currently placed in the genus Bangsia (previously subsumed within Buthraupis) that is endemic to the northern Andes of Colombia. Principally black above, set off by the yellow central underparts, the lesser wing-coverts and uppertail-coverts are deep blue. It is found in two distinct regions, one on the Pacific slope of the West Andes, whilst the other is the northern and western slopes of the Central Andes; in both areas it inhabits subtropical cloud forests at elevations of 1000 to 2300 m. There is some evidence to indicate that the species moves to higher elevations in the post-breeding season.
There are a number of published Spanish common names including Tángara Negrigualda (Hilty 2011, de Juana et al. 2012), Tángara Aurinegra (Collazos-González and Cortes-Herrera 2015), and Bangsia Negra y Oro (Chaparro-Herrera et al. 2013). The scientific name for this species is Bangsia melanochlamys. The genus Bangsia honors Outrum Bangs who was a collector and zoologist at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University. The specific epithet melanochlamys comes from the Greek roots mela- which means black, and -khlamus which means cloak or mantle (Jobling 2010).