Blue-and-gold Tanager, which currently is listed as Near Threatened by BirdLife International, occurs in three disjunct populations: on the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica and in western and central Panama. Considered to be generally uncommon, it is found in lowland and montane evergreen forest, forest edges and gaps at elevations of 300–1,500 m, and the species typically forages in the canopy, taking fruit, insects and spiders, and occasionally extracting nectar from flowers. Like other species of Bangsia tanagers, it is a stout looking species, with dark blue to blackish upperparts, and principally yellow below, with striking red irides. A better understanding of the biology of this bird is imperative, for evidence suggests that populations of this bird species are declining due to loss of habitat by human activities, such as burning forests, logging, and other agricultural uses. The etymology of Bangsia arcaei honors two early ornithologists: Bangsia is named after Outram Bangs, who for many years was the curator of birds at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University; and arcaei is named after the Guatemalan collector, Enrique Arcée (Jobling 2010).