The Alagoas Foliage-gleaner is similar in morphology to the much commoner Black-capped Foliage-gleaner (Philydor atricapillus) of the southern Atlantic Forest. In contrast, the conservation status of this relatively recently described northeast Brazilian endemic is perilous. The species is listed as Critically Endangered by BirdLife International, and since its discovery in the tiny and heavily fragmented forests above the town of Murici in Alagoas, has only ever been recorded at one additional locality, in immediately adjacent Pernambuco. Furthermore, recent records from Alagoas have become distinctly scarce. Given the extent of forest destruction in this region, it seems that this species’ future is now very precarious, despite that it has been observed in selectively logged areas and old second growth; all records are from the highlands of this region. Like other foliage-gleaners, the Alagoas Foliage-gleaner is most frequently recorded within mixed-species foraging flocks, wherein it is usually observed singly or in pairs.