The Cherry-throated Tanager was, until its dramatic rediscovery in 1998, a species shrouded in mystery. Until that year, this arrestingly beautiful tanager, one of just species of Nemosia, was known solely from its type specimen collected in the 19th century, and single sight records in the 1940s and early 1990s, the first of which was not published until decades later and the second was considered unconfirmed. As of the present-day, the Cherry-throated Tanager is definitely known from just three localities, all in the highlands of southern Espírito Santo state, in southeast Brazil, and surveys of adjacent areas, including in Minas Gerais (where the holotype originates) and Rio de Janeiro, have failed to locate additional sites for this obviously very rare bird. As a result, this tanager is currently listed as Critically Endangered. The Cherry-throated Tanager is routinely observed in flocks, usually in the canopy or subcanopy, either of its own species, or in mixed-species groups, and is perhaps most easily detected by its loud and distinctive vocalizations.