Endemic to the Atlantic Forest and near-endemic to Brazil, the Eared Pygmy-Tyrant only just ranges into southeast Paraguay and northeast Argentina. It is a typical Myiornis, being tiny and easily overlooked, except by its calls. The bold dark ear coverts marking, which gives rise to the species’ English and scientific names, is unquestionably the bird’s most distinctive plumage feature and should permit ready identification from other small flycatchers in the Eared Pygmy-Tyrant’s range. The species is found in humid forest and at edges, from sea level to 1200 m, and usually forages in lower growth or the midstory. It feeds mainly on insects and constructs a ‘purse’-shaped nest with a side entrance usually fairly low above the ground.