Named by one latter-day giant of Neotropical ornithology, Philip Lutley Sclater, for another, August von Pelzeln, this species’ generic relationships demand further investigation. Although its distribution just spans three countries, the Gray-bellied Antbird has a relatively tiny range that is largely confined to the Orinoco-Negro White-sand Forest Endemic Bird Area. Here, this recently rediscovered species is found, sparingly, in a variety of forest types, all growing on white sand, but seems most dependent on Amazonian caatinga, which is characterized by relatively low-stature, slender-trunked trees, and an abundant leaf litter but poorly developed understory. The Gray-bellied Antbird feeds alone or in pairs, almost exclusively on the ground, which it explores on zigzagging route, taking insects and spiders, and does not associate with mixed-species flocks. Both sexes are principally brown above with pale-spotted wing coverts, but while females are largely pale below with some scalloping over the throat, males have a black throat and breast, becoming gray over the belly, and more ochre ventrally.