The Vinaceous Parrot is an endangered Atlantic forest endemic found in small, fragmented populations scattered from northeastern Paraguay and central Misiones (Argentina) to Espirito Santo (Brazil). It forages, roosts and nests in a variety of habitat types including montane parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia) forest, lowland semi-deciduous forest, urban areas, forest fragments, and farms with isolated trees. Breeding occurs from August to December in a tree cavity. Outside of the breeding season, Vinaceous Parrots are highly gregarious, flocking together to feed on a variety of seeds, fruits, young shoots and flowers, perhaps especially seeds of the parana pine. Remaining populations are threatened by capture for pets, clearing of Atlantic forest, selective logging of large trees required for nesting, lack of recruitment among nest-trees in rural areas, and perhaps harvest of parana pine seeds for human consumption. To inform conservation efforts, it is important to study habitat selection, nest-site competition, foraging ecology, and demography.