Rufous-bellied Bush-Tyrant is a large flycatcher of montane western South America. Found in the Andes in southern Peru and western Bolivia, the species inhabits montane forest and edge habitats between 1900 and 2900 meters in elevation. This bush-tyrant is brown above with a grayish supercilium, blackish wings with two rufous wingbars and rufous edging to the inner flight feathers, white throat and rufous underparts. Unlike other species of bush-tyrants, which typically only show cinnamon or rufous in the wing in flight, this species shows a considerable amount of "color" on the folded wing at rest. Found singly or in pairs, Rufous-bellied Bush-Tyrant is uncommon within its limited Andean range, and its natural history is not well known.