This beautiful antbird is common in the understory and midstory of bamboo thickets within evergreen Atlantic Forest, where it is endemic to southeast Brazil. In terms of altitude, the species is undoubtedly commonest in the lowlands, but it has been recorded to about 1600 m. From 900 m upwards, this species overlaps with the very similar Bertoni’s Antbird (Drymophila rubricollis), which is distinguished most easily by its very different vocalizations, but also by having less black on the mantle, darker wing feathers, brighter underparts, and shorter tail. The male’s highly distinctive double-noted loudsong often draws the observer’s attention, well before the bird is seen. Pairs and family groups, which sometimes join mixed-species flocks, feed on insects usually by perch-gleaning. Despite the species’ relative abundance, its breeding behavior is extraordinarily poorly known.