The Yellow-fronted Woodpecker is a typical Melanerpes in most aspects of its behavior, but it is certainly one of the most attractive of the genus. The upperparts are largely blue-black, with a large white rump patch, and there is also a broad dark stripe through the eye reaching to the ‘shoulder’. The crown and belly are red, the flanks heavily dark-barred, and the throat, forehead, and eye-ring are yellow, while females lack the red crown. The Yellow-fronted Woodpecker forms a superspecies with the Yellow-tufted Woodpecker (Melanerpes cruentatus), which is exclusively Amazonian in distribution, whereas the present species is confined to southeast South America, where it is endemic to humid forest and semi-open wooded areas within the Atlantic Forest biome, from southeast Brazil to eastern Paraguay and northeast Argentina. Like other Melanerpes, the Yellow-fronted Woodpecker breeds cooperatively, with up to four males and two females attending a single nest.