- Order: Passeriformes
- Family: Thamnophilidae
Una, Bahia, Brazil; 13 February 2009 © Bruno Rennó
The Bahia Antwren is endemic to a relatively narrow coastal strip in Bahia, in eastern Brazil, where it is currently known from just ten localities; as a result of this, and ongoing forest destruction within its range, the species is categorized as Vulnerable by BirdLife International. The species is generally found alone or in pairs in relatively low-stature restinga woodlands, where it is most easily located by virtue of its vocalizations. It is a typical Herpsilochmus in its plumage, and this similarity to other congeners led to this species being widely overlooked, until the 1990s when it was realized that the birds in the Caatinga region and coastal Bahia possess different songs, and slightly different morphology, especially in females. Subsequent investigation demonstrated that the name Herpsilochmus pileatus was based on a specimen from the Bahia Antwren’s range, and therefore that the much more widely distributed populations in the Caatinga were in need of a new name.
. 2010. Bahia Antwren (Herpsilochmus pileatus), Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; retrieved from Neotropical Birds Online: http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=380851